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|Traditional Manufacturing||Lean Manufacturing|
|No. of equipment and people||High||Less|
|Factory space for same output||High||Less|
|Work in Progress (WIP)||High||Less|
|Production Lead time||High||Less|
|Inventory||Inventory is good||Inventory is WASTE|
|System schedule||Push system scheduled internally||Pull system scheduled by CustomerRequirements|
|Focus||Focus on Value-Add improvement(5%)||Focus on Non-Value-Add WasteElimination (95%)|
|Direct labor cost||High direct labor cost||Direct labor cost is a small percentage of total labor cost|
|Cycle time||Long cycle time||Short cycle time|
|Production||Production for inventory (Just In Case-JIC)||Production on demand (Just In Time-JIT)|
|Inventory level||High inventory levels (Raw, WIP, Finished)||Inventory levels are radically reduced.|
|Production system||Assembly line flow (Each worker performs one function)||Cell production (Each operator performs multiple operations – multi skilled operators)|
|Cleanliness||Messy, cluttered and dirty shop floor||Spotless shop floor with visual management|
|Quality management||Quality management through inspection and rework||management of quality through prevention|
|Changes in production practice||Infrequent changes in production practice||Continuous changes to improve efficiency and productivity|
|Management layer||Many layers of management||Fewer layers of management|
|structure||Not exactly team based structure||Strong team based structure.|
Time consumed in product development (PD) is the biggest issue. Approvals and bulk fabric in-house consumes approximately 75% of the total pre-production activity time and as far the most time-consuming task. Whole supply chain needs a system which
Reduces time spent in PD.
Co-ordinates internally for all pre production activity.
Producing a high quality clear-cut specifications for manufacturing and quality purposes
About 60% of the delays are at pre production stage and remaining at the production stage and reduction of such time can help the company in meeting the delivery dates on time. Controlling the delay would enable the company to reduce the deviation from the schedules lead time and honor the delivery date.
SCOPE OF CRITICAL PATH METHOD
Garment merchandising activities are characterized by people oriented function .
Interdependent activities are synchronized between succeeding and preceding activities to make process network .
Critical chain is the solution the garment industry is looking for as it is based on task dependency. Read the rest of this entry
“One is never over-dressed or under-dressed with a Little Black Dress.” —Karl Lagerfeld
“Before you leave the house, look in the mirror and remove one accessory.” —Coco Chanel
I firmly believe that with the right footwear one can rule the world. —Bette Midler
“I loathe narcissism, but I approve of vanity.” —Diana Vreeland
“A woman’s dress should be a like a barbed-wire fence: serving its purpose without obstructing the view.” —Sophia Loren
“I like my money right where I can see it…hanging in my closet.” —Carrie Bradshaw
“Nothing tastes as good as skinny feels.” —Kate Moss
“I can’t concentrate in flats!” —Victoria Beckham
“I don’t do fashion. I am fashion.” —Coco Chanel
“Walk like you have three men walking behind you.” —Oscar de la Renta
“You can have anything you want in life if you dress for it.” —Edith Head
“Fashion is the armor to survive the reality of everyday life.” —Bill Cunningham
“When in doubt, wear red.” —Bill Blass
“I don’t design clothes. I design dreams.” —Ralph Lauren
“Clothes mean nothing until someone lives in them.” —Marc Jacobs
“Fashions fade, style is eternal.” —Yves Saint Laurent Read the rest of this entry
The ability of plasma processing to break down weak covalent bonds in a polymer through bombardment with high-energy particles is known as ablation. This affects the outermost molecular layers of the substrate exposed to the plasma, which boils off and is removed by the vacuum. Because the chemistry of any layers of surface contamination is also generally made up of weak C-H bonds, plasma treatment can remove contaminants such as oil films or injection molding additives, thereby leaving behind a uniformly clean and active polymer surface.
Cross-linking is the setting up of chemical links between the molecular chains of polymers. Plasma processing with inert gases can be used to cross-link polymers and produce a stronger and harder substrate micro surface. Under certain circumstances, cross-linking through plasma treatment can also lend additional wear or chemical resistance to a material.
The replacement of surface polymer groups with chemical groups from the plasma is called activation. During activation, the plasma breaks down weak bonds in the polymer and replaces them with highly reactive carbonyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups. Activation can also be performed with amino groups or other functional groups. The resulting change in substrate characteristics will be determined by the type of chemical groups incorporated into the surface.
In plasma deposition, a thin polymer coating is formed at the substrate surface through polymerization of the process gas. Depending on the selection of the gas and process parameters, these thin coatings can be deposited with various properties or physical characteristics. Coatings produced in this manner through plasma deposition exhibit different properties than films derived from conventional polymerization, including a high degree of cross-linking and extremely strong adherence to the substrate. Read the rest of this entry
Plasma is defined as an ionized gas containing both charged and neutral species, including free electrons, positive and/or negative ions, atoms, and molecules. The overall state of plasma is considered neutral with the density of electrons and negative ions being equal to the density of the positively charged ions, known as plasma quasi-neutrality. In order to form and sustain plasma, an energy source capable of producing the required degree of ionization must be used. Either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) power supplies may be used to generate the electric field required for plasma generation. For many industrial types of plasma, radio frequency (RF) power supplies are used, usually at a standard frequency of 13.56 MHz. Plasma generation may also be performed at various pressures, including low (vacuum), atmospheric, or high pressure.
Basic Principle of plasma: In elementary physics reference is often made to the three states of matter: Solid, Liquid and Gas. However, there is a fourth state: Plasma.
To convert a solid to a liquid energy is imparted to the solid, usually in the form of heat; similarly to convert a liquid to a gas. It is not therefore surprising that to convert a gas to a plasma, energy also needs to be imparted to the gas. The energy disassociated electrons from the gas atoms through atomic particle collisions. This occurs randomly, which means the energized gas is a mixture of ions, freed electrons, photons and neutral atoms (those yet to lose electrons). If a solid or liquid substance is introduced into the plasma, the high energy gas particles of the plasma will penetrate and collide with atoms or molecules several nano-meters into the solid or liquid, dissociating those electrons and bringing those atoms or molecules to an excited state to be part of the plasma. This means that the high energy particles of the plasma will continuously etch away a several nano-meter layer of a solid or liquid substrate for as long as the material is in contact with the energized gas. Read the rest of this entry
The devil wears prada is an influential movie on fashion press and fashion industry.
In New York, the simple and naive just-graduated in journalism Andrea Sachs is hired to work as the second assistant of the powerful and sophisticated Miranda Priestly, the ruthless and merciless executive of the Runway fashion magazine. Andrea dreams to become a journalist and faces the opportunity as a temporary professional challenge. The first assistant Emily advises Andrea about the behavior and preferences of their cruel boss, and the stylist Nigel helps Andrea to dress more adequately for the environment. Andrea changes her attitude and behavior, affecting her private life and the relationship with her boyfriend Nate, her family and friends. In the end, Andrea learns that life is made of choices.
Click here to Download the torrent file.
The basic principles are features of ultrasonic cutting are as below –