Pumice stones used in Denim Washing
Pumice Stone is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular or perforated volcanic glass.Pumice Stone is created when super-heated and highly pressurized rock is violently erupted from a volcano.
The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid de-pressurization. Pumice Stone float on water. Pumice Stone commonly originated from Indonesia and Turkey. Different sizes of Pumice Stones are available, such as 2-5 cm which known as small Pumice Stone. 3-5 cm which known as medium size Pumice Stone. And 5-7cm which is known as Large size Pumice Stone.
The hardness of Pumice Stone in Mohr scale is 6. The melting temperature of Pumice Stone is 15000˚ C and pH value is 8 and the density is 2.313g/cm3.
Pumice stone’s typical chemical composition is:
Commercial pumice stone’s grain size:
Pumice stone usage in stone wash:
One of such washing is known as stone wash. In stone-washing the worn-out look is given purposely. The fabric is washed along with pumice stones. The stones and denim are spun together in large industrial washing machines. The longer they are spun together lighter the colour of the fabric with better contrasts would result. The time duration of this procedure is set beforehand so as to avoid the tear and wear of the fabric. Thereafter, the fabric undergoes various other processes of rinsing, softening and finally tumble-drying. These stone-washed fabrics are used for different purposes — garment making as well as for upholstery purpose.
Disadvantages of pumice stone usage:
Stone-washing the denim with pumice stones has some disadvantages. For instance, stones could cause wear and tear of the fabric, also it creates the problem of environmental disposition of waste of the grit produced by the stones. High labour costs are to be borne as the pumice stones and their dust particles produced are to be physically removed from the pockets of the garments and machines by the labourers. Denim is required to be washed several times in order to completely get rid of the stones. The process of stone-washing also harms big, expensive laundry machines.