Category Archives: Apparel Merchandising



  • Labels are Mandatory in case of international garments trading. Without label no garments can be sold.
  • Trade name, country of origin, size, care instruction etc. are shown mainly on the label.
  • In good quality labels, information’s are woven by narrow loom (Jacquard is most common). The cut ends are folded inward & sewn with plain or zigzag machine.
  • Low price labels are wider & are printed on a fabric made from thermoplastic fibre. The cut edge are heat sealed & supplied in roll form to the RMG industry.

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A button is an object that is used in garments either for the purpose of fastening or for


Fig: Buttons

ornamentation or both. Buttons are usually in the shape of a disc or a knob. Evidence shows that, buttons have been used since as long back as 1500 – 2000 BC. Buttons used in 2600 – 2800  BC have been excavated in the ancient Indus valley, while those used in 1500 – 2000 BC have been found in China as well as in Rome.


Evolution of Button:

13th century ——– Buttons were used as ornament.

16th century ——– Began being attached as a functional fastener.

15th & 16th century ——–Buttons plated with Gold & silver were popular among the noble class.

18th century ———- The trend of enamel buttons set in. Read the rest of this entry

Critical Path Method and Garmenting


Time consumed in product development (PD) is the biggest issue. Approvals and bulk fabric in-house consumes approximately 75% of the total pre-production activity time and as far the most time-consuming task. Whole supply chain needs a system which

  Reduces time spent in PD.

  Co-ordinates   internally   for all   pre production activity.

  Producing a high quality clear-cut specifications for manufacturing and quality purposes

About 60% of the delays are at pre production stage and remaining at the production stage and reduction of such time can help the  company in meeting the delivery dates on time. Controlling the delay would enable the company to reduce the deviation   from the schedules lead time and honor the delivery date.


  Garment merchandising activities are characterized by people oriented function .

  Interdependent activities are synchronized between succeeding and preceding activities to make process network .

  Critical chain is the solution the garment industry is looking for as it is based on task dependency. Read the rest of this entry

Load and Capacity calculation for garments production planning

For an effective production planning and regarding taking order from buyer, one should know the capacity of his facility and the load what he is going to put. An equilibrium in load and capacity is necessary to fulfill the order in right time and ensure a timely delivery.


Garments Analysis for Production Planning:

  • Garments analysis is very important to make a production schedule or plan.
  • The same time we should have the idea about the operator’s capacity for particular operation so that the specific job will be completed smoothly.

During garments analysis we should check the following points very carefully:

  • Garments observations
  • Key seam quality areas by operation, stitch & seam construction and SPI
  • Point out how many operations are involved in the particular item.
  • Accordingly make a diagram of machine lay out.
  • Point out the critical operation where we can expect the “bottle neck” during production.
  • Considering bottle neck allow extra machines for that operation to keep production flow as you expect.
  • Find out the input operation and out put operation also.

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Time study in Industrial Engineering (RMG)

time study

Time study:

Time study is a work measurement technique for recording the time of performing a certain specific job or its element carried out under specific condition and for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for an operator to carry out at a defined rate of performance.

Time study is a method of direct observation. A trained observer watches the job and records data as the job is being performed over a number of cycles.

Time study equipment:

The stop watch in general, two types of watch are used for time study.

  1. Fly back
  2. Continuous

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Role of Order Negotiation in RMG Business


Orders that have been sent to factories will be negotiated for price, delivery, quota and quality etc. The order negotiation between the buyer and the manufacturer is not always an easy task. The buyers are always trying to get this garments made at very low prices whilst the manufacturers are hoping they will get at least 2 per cent more than what they got last time for a similar style.

The buyer always has a target price for the merchandise he hopes to buy. He has already finished his home work and fully aware of the market price for the particular type of garment. Therefore, he will do his best to buy the garments bellow his target price or for his target price. We should not forget the globe is full of manufacturers and suppliers. The buyer will certainly move to another manufacturer or country if he fails to buy at his price.
On the other hand, the manufacturers will promise the best quality and prompt delivery to convince the buyers to pay extra dollar or two for his merchandise. It is rather difficult to convince a buyer to pay more than his target price, but it may be possible to do so if the company has a good relationship with the buyer or if the company has a very good reputation for excellent performance. In other words a good image should do the trick. Read the rest of this entry

Introductory Discussions on Merchandising

All introductory notes on Fashion/ Garments Merchandising.

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