Category Archives: Garments Technology-I

Automatic Fabric Spreading Process

Requirements/ Prerequisites of fabric cutting

Cutting of fabric lay by a straight knife cutting machine.

To cut the pieces of garments from fabric lay accurately, following requirements should be fulfilled. Requirements are as following:
1. Precision of cut
2. Clean edge
3. Unfused edge
4. Support of the lay
5. Consistent cutting

1. Precision of cut: Garments cannot be assembled satisfactorily, and they may not fit the body correctly if they have not been cut accurately to the pattern shape. Precision of cut means cutting parts’ shape and size must be as per original sketch. It depends upon some factors-

• The method of cutting employed.
• The marker planning and marker making.
• In manual cutting using a knife, accuracy of cut, given good line definition, depends on appropriate, well maintained cutting knives and on the skill and motivation of the cutter.
• In both die cutting & computer-controlled cutting, the achievement of accuracy comes from the equipment.
• Skill of the operator.

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Ultrasonic and plasma torch cutting method for fabric cutting

Ultrasonic Cutting

The basic principles are features of ultrasonic cutting are as below –

  • Ultrasonic welding is the most recent system.
  • Vibration frequencies in the 20 kHz range produce 1/20 mm movement in the blade.
  • No need of bristle base like computer controlled cutting.
  • Disposable knife blades save sharpening time.
  • Knifes last for 10-14 days in moderate use.
  • Two cutting heads are used, moving in different but synchronized paths.
  • Up to 10 plies can be cut and low vacuum only needed.

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Fabric Wastage outside the Marker

The maximum usage of the fabric is directly related to the marker efficiency. In spite of this few amount of fabric wastage occurs which is out of control of marker planning. The fabric wastage outside the marker is discussed below

01. Ends of Ply Losses:

Some allowances are needed the end of each pieces of fabric during spreading. Usually 2cm. in each end and on each ply 4 cm. wastage happened. This wastage varies with the fabric type and their durability. For this the wastage can be reduced by controlling carefully the allowance of the marker according to the fabric type. But this loss is less if marker length is higher and vice-versa.

02. Loss of Fabric in Roll:

Fabrics usually come in roll form in garments industries. There are the limitations of fabric length in each roll. Fabric spreading is done according to the marker length. Most of the time it is seen that fabrics are not exact to the multiple lays. For this reason at the end of the roll few amount of fabrics are always wasted as remnant which is cut. We can do splicing & the remaining portion should be reused to save fabric. Read the rest of this entry

Marker making methods

Marker can be made either in i) Manual method or in ii) Computerized method.

1. Manual Method:

The method of marker making which is done by the hand of people with his own planning is known as manual method of marker making. In this method physical & mental industry is necessary.

Manual method is of two types:

     a)    Marker planning with full size pattern.

     b)  Marker with minimized pattern.

a) Marker planning with full size pattern:

  • In this method, all patterns are in full dimension according to standard measurement.
  • Hard patterns are placed on paper or on fabric and then all patterns are marked by turning different direction to minimize the fabric usage.
  • The tables, on which the markers are placed, are arranged in such a way so that they do no tilt.
  • Vacuum system is arranged under the table for suction.
  •  This method is suitable for markers of shorter length. When different sizes of patterns are taken for making a marker, in that case it is not useful. Read the rest of this entry

Marker Efficiency

Marker Efficiency:

The ratio between the areas of all required patterns in the marker to the area of the marker which is expressed as a percentage is known as marker efficiency.

 Marker Efficiency     =     (Area of all patterns in the marker/  Total area of the marker)  X 100

The marker planner measures his success by the efficiency of the marker plan. Higher the marker efficiency, lower will be the fabric wastage & profit will be high.

 Factors Related To Marker Efficiency:

The following factors are related to marker efficiency

01. Marker Planner:

Marker efficiency depends on the experience, honesty, sincerity & technological knowledge Read the rest of this entry

Constraints of Marker Planning

Though we always want to plan marker with highest efficiency to confirm the highest use of fabrics but it is always not possible to place the pattern pieces as desired. This occurs because during planning marker we have to maintain some requirements. The constraints for which we can not plan marker as desired are as-

  1. The nature of the fabric, desired shape and style of the garments.
  2. The requirements of quality of cutting.
  3. The requirements of production planning

1. The nature of the fabric:

a)    Pattern alignment in relation to the grain line of the fabric: Pattern pieces must carry the grain line when they are laid down on the marker paper & the grain line should be parallel Read the rest of this entry

Marker Planning


Marker is a long thin paper which contains all necessary pattern pieces for different sizes for a particular style of garments. It is planned in such a way that fabric wastage would be least.

Example of a Marker

Example of a Marker

By making a marker it is possible to achieve more benefit by producing a garment with reduced wastage. Normally the width of a marker is kept according to the cutable width of the fabric and the length of a marker normally depends on the number and sizes of pattern placed on a marker. The length also depends on- Read the rest of this entry

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