Category Archives: Garments Technology-II

Hook & loop fastening: VELCRO


  • A Swiss inventor made this product & offered the Trade name VELCRO, comes from the French word VELOUR (velvet) & crochet.
  • Consists of 2 nylon tapes, one having a surface of loops & the other having surface of hooks. When pressed together, two tapes adhere & cannot be opened by side way turn easily open by upward turns.
  • This trimming is used instead of buttons or zippers.
  • It is available in the market in roll form. Most common width 5/8” to 3/4”.
  • Used in shoes, belts, money bags, bags, suitcase, sportswear, children, medical textiles etc.
  • Mostly used in the garments of paralyzed persons’.
  • ‘VELCRO’ is also a famous brand for Hook & Loop Fastening.


  • Not suitable for light weight garments, due to high thickness.
  • Efficiency reduces due to dirt, dust & materials deposited in the hook or loops.
  • The possibility of fabric damage.
  • Not comfortable to wear due to less flexibility of tape.



  • Labels are Mandatory in case of international garments trading. Without label no garments can be sold.
  • Trade name, country of origin, size, care instruction etc. are shown mainly on the label.
  • In good quality labels, information’s are woven by narrow loom (Jacquard is most common). The cut ends are folded inward & sewn with plain or zigzag machine.
  • Low price labels are wider & are printed on a fabric made from thermoplastic fibre. The cut edge are heat sealed & supplied in roll form to the RMG industry.

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A button is an object that is used in garments either for the purpose of fastening or for


Fig: Buttons

ornamentation or both. Buttons are usually in the shape of a disc or a knob. Evidence shows that, buttons have been used since as long back as 1500 – 2000 BC. Buttons used in 2600 – 2800  BC have been excavated in the ancient Indus valley, while those used in 1500 – 2000 BC have been found in China as well as in Rome.


Evolution of Button:

13th century ——– Buttons were used as ornament.

16th century ——– Began being attached as a functional fastener.

15th & 16th century ——–Buttons plated with Gold & silver were popular among the noble class.

18th century ———- The trend of enamel buttons set in. Read the rest of this entry



The process to remove unwanted crease & wrinkles & to produce crease in wanted/required area to give the garment a smooth, lusturious & fine appearance is known as pressing.

Pressing is also known as “Ironing”.

In technical sense, ‘pressing can be defined as a process which changes the geometric fibre structure of the area being pressed by the controlled application of heat, steam & pressure’.

In this sense, removing a crease from a garment involves the same change of fibre lay as that required to open a seam or to press a hem.

Pressing is a crucial process which imparts the final finish to a garment & present the garment attractively to the final customer. Read the rest of this entry

Alternative methods of fabric joining – 1

Alternative Method of Joining:

The method /system/process which have been developed as alternative to sewing are known as alternative method of joining.


  • Lower joining speed hence less production.
  • Seam appearance is not so good.
  • Seam performance is not satisfactory in some aspects compared to sewn seam
  • Alternation of seam is quite difficult, also impossible in most of the cases.
  • Comparatively less comfortable due to harsh feeling.


  1. Fusing
  2. Welding & adhesive

  3. Moulding.

1. Fusing:

  • Most widely used system and mostly used in case of joining interlining.
  • In this process, the resin / polymer coated side of the base fabric of interlining are spread on the underside of the garments fabric & joined by applying heat & pressure.
  • Due to heating, the resin/polymer of interlining are melted & due to pressure, this melted resin/polymer penetrate inside the construction of fibre of garments fabric & of interlining base fabric. When they get cold, the melted polymer becomes hard & interlining is joined with fabric.
  • Limitation is, it only can be used for joining interlining, not suitable for general joining of fabrics. Moreover this process cannot be used to join interlining to every kind of fabric

Read the rest of this entry

History of Sewing Machine Needle


It is a little known fact that the needle was one of humankind’s first tools. Over the centuries it developed from a simple craft item to the precision tool for modern sewing machines, constantly adapted for new industrial applications and requirements. The use of sewing today does not stop at garments and furnishings, but is equally important for car seats and airbags meeting high technical safety standards. The needle has played a major part in the development of our civilization and our standard of living.

Ancient Sewing Needles

Bone NeedleThe most ancient sewing needles, which date back to 28,000 BC, did not have an eye but a split end which gripped the thread to be sewn (often raffia, gut or sinew). Needles from later than 17,500 BC already had the two features characteristic of the hand sewing needle today… the eye at one end and the tapering point at the other end. They were made from the materials available to human society at the time, for example, bones and antlers. Read the rest of this entry

Major requirements for a good quality sewing thread

Sewing Threads

Sewing Threads

Tensile strength:

The amount of strength required to break a thread. It varies according to temperature, humidity, rate of applied force, moisture etc. It is expresses in gm, kg, lb, CN etc.

Tensile strength of the thread should be high enough to hold the stitched seam securely during wash and wear.

For coarser thread, Tensile strength is higher and vice-versa.


Tenacity is the relative thickness of thread expressed in gm/denier, gm/tex etc.

                          Tenacity = (Thread tensile strength/Thread count or thickness).

Sewing threads’ tensile strength depends on count but tenacity is not dependent on count because it is the strength per unit thickness. Read the rest of this entry

Zipper: The continuous fasteners!!



Evolution of zipper:

  • Zipper is the brainchild of Mr. Whitcomb Judson.
  • It was introduced in 1893 at the Chicago World’s Fair, then with the name ‘Clasp Locker’.
  • Gideon Sundback, an electrical engineer, who was hired to work for the company designed the modern zipper in 1913.
  • B.F. Goodrich Company renamed it as ‘Zipper’.
  • Initially during 1930, zippers were featured in child clothing complementing them for helping children to dress up quickly & by themselves.
  • Zippers came into limelight in 1937 through the French fashion designers who used them on men’s trouser.
  • Esquire magazine described the zippers as ‘Newest Tailoring Idea for Men’.
  • The next big boost for zippers came when they were used on jackets and could be opened on both ends. Read the rest of this entry
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