To cut the pieces of garments from fabric lay accurately, following requirements should be fulfilled. Requirements are as following:
1. Precision of cut
2. Clean edge
3. Unfused edge
4. Support of the lay
5. Consistent cutting
1. Precision of cut: Garments cannot be assembled satisfactorily, and they may not fit the body correctly if they have not been cut accurately to the pattern shape. Precision of cut means cutting parts’ shape and size must be as per original sketch. It depends upon some factors-
• The method of cutting employed.
• The marker planning and marker making.
• In manual cutting using a knife, accuracy of cut, given good line definition, depends on appropriate, well maintained cutting knives and on the skill and motivation of the cutter.
• In both die cutting & computer-controlled cutting, the achievement of accuracy comes from the equipment.
• Skill of the operator.
The Top Global Fashion Capital Rankings are listed below, in the format: Position, City, Change from 2012, and comment.
- New York (+1) — The Big Apple is back on top of the fashion world by slipping past Paris by .5%.
- Paris (+2) – The Top Global Fashion Capital for Haute Couture is surprisingly strong in pret-a-porter, also.
- London (-2) – London has enjoyed a fabulous two-year run and is now secure in its place in the top echelon for global fashion.
- Los Angeles (+5) – Zut alors! Tinsel Town in the Top Four? The result of the melding of the Red Carpet, the Industry (film, of course), and West Coast cool.
- Barcelona (-2) – Espana, again, places two Fashion Capitals in the Top Fifteen. Barcelona also wins the Top Fashion Capital for Swimwear.
- Rome (0) — Rome may have Seven Hills but Italy now has Three Fashion Capitals (and Milan is No. 2).
- Berlin (+3) – Berlin continues its steady rise moving deeper into the the elite ranks.
- Sydney (+7) – Sydney towers over OZ distancing (and distinguishing) itself, once again, from Melbourne.
- Antwerp (+2) – Ah Antwerp, reverberations of the avant garde Antwerp Six continues into the 21st century.
- Shanghai (+12) – As China further emerges onto the world stage, Shanghai leads the fashion charge.
- Tokyo (+9) – Tokyo made a leap in 2013 that many consider long overdue.
- Milano (-4) – Milan was the Top Global Fashion Capital back in 2009 and remains a strong contender for the top spot year-after-year.
- Florence (+3) – Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli — A proud heritage to a thriving fashion industry in 2013.
- Madrid (-9) – Still strong in 2013, further cementing its place among the elite Fashion Capitals.
- Sao Paulo (-8) – Again, the Queen of Latin American Fashion Capitals.
- St. Petersburg (+35) – Russian comes into 2014 with two Fashion Capitals in the Top Twenty, with Petrograd surprising Moscow.
- Moscow (+18) – Apparently a rising tide does, indeed, raise all ships as Moscow comes back strong from 2012.
- Singapore (+1) – Basically standing in place (and a good place to stand) but now trailing both Shanghai and Tokyo.
- Miami (+20) – Miami is, indeed, more than swimwear; and the fashion world apparently recognizes it.
- Hong Kong (-8) – Down another eight spots this year but still a strong global presence.
- Prague (+24) – Prague continues its well-deserved ascension up the Fashion Capital ladder.
- New Delhi (+26) – A major move for Delhi, the result of ‘sticking to the knitting’ (its traditional strengths) and focusing on them.
- Krakow (+10) – Krakow continues it curious and continuous expansion of influence.
- Warsaw (+19) – Warsaw, too, is finding its stride as a major regional player.
- Dallas (+21) – The Big D is now the top US regional Fashion Capital.
- Melbourne (-5) – Still solid but falling further behind Sydney in the race for the OZ title.
- Cape Town (+27) – In a major surprise, Cape Town leaps over Jo-burg or, rather, Jo-burg falls behind the Mother City.
- Rio de Janeiro (-11) – Rio, which has the upcoming World Cup and Summer Olympics in 2016, needs to keep pace with Sao Paulo.
- Chicago (+21) – The City of Big Shoulders continues to reach out as a global fashion contender.
- Buenos Aires (-17) – Buenos Aires’s native-born son, Jorge Mario Bergoglio, has won a major fashion award, as the city itself flourishes as a regional Fashion Capital.
- Dubai (-3) – A burgeoning global presence and the No. 1 Fashion Capital in the Middle East.
- Toronto (+21) – Makes a major move to take the lead in Canada, over Toronto (by one) and Montreal (by 15).
- Vancouver (-2) – VanCity is developing its own, distinctive fashion sense, finding admirers the world over.
- Las Vegas (-10) – Las Vegas is attempting to build a brand-new fashion infrastructure.
- Amsterdam (-8) – Creative impulses continue to flow outward from the Netherlands.
- Stockholm (-4) – Stockholm is now the Nordic Fashion Capital, with good reason.
- Johannesburg (-19) – Jo-burg, continues in its role as a major regional center influencers.
- Vienna (-1) – The ancient imperial citadel continues to exert its classic fashion sense.
- Bali (-25) – Bali is a serious Fashion Capital for Swimwear, a strong annual contender.
- Boston ( 4) – Boston brings a classic sense of traditional American design with flashes of innovation.
- Mexico City (+6) – Finding its footing as a major Latin American Fashion Capital
- Houston (+7) – One of the three Texas cities to emerge in recent years.
- Copenhagen (-13) – Copenhagen and Stockholm continue to contend for leadership in the Nordic World.
- Monaco (-19) – Monte Carlo is, well, Monte Carlo.
- Mumbai (-7) – Over the last few years Delhi has surpassed Mumbai as the Fashion Capital of the Subcontinent.
- Atlanta (+9) – Atlanta, is now the Fashion Capital, as well as the Capital of the New South.
- Santiago (-21) – A solid, yet idiosyncratic, fashion presence in the sphere of Latin American Fashion.
- Montreal (+4) – An Old World presence in a thriving New World metropolis.
- Caracas (-26) – Working hard to maintain its traditional yet advanced fashion sensibilities.
- San Francisco (-9) – Continues to thrive as one of the two centers of outer (and odd) fashion in the US.
- Abu Dhabi (-11) – There are more vibrant outposts of fashion that are contending to replace Abu Dhabi on this list.
- Bangkok (-23) – Bangkok’s fashion reputation reflected the decline of civil order in Thailand.
- Austin (-11) – The other thriving center of outr (and odd) fashion in the US.
- Frankfurt (-18) – Berlin’s towering fashion stature overshadows Frankfurt am Main.
- Seoul (-21) – The emerging Fashion Capital continues to build on its distinctive sense of Asian style.
Courtesy : http://www.languagemonitor.com
The process to remove unwanted crease & wrinkles & to produce crease in wanted/required area to give the garment a smooth, lusturious & fine appearance is known as pressing.
Pressing is also known as “Ironing”.
In technical sense, ‘pressing can be defined as a process which changes the geometric fibre structure of the area being pressed by the controlled application of heat, steam & pressure’.
In this sense, removing a crease from a garment involves the same change of fibre lay as that required to open a seam or to press a hem.
Pressing is a crucial process which imparts the final finish to a garment & present the garment attractively to the final customer. Read the rest of this entry
|Traditional Manufacturing||Lean Manufacturing|
|No. of equipment and people||High||Less|
|Factory space for same output||High||Less|
|Work in Progress (WIP)||High||Less|
|Production Lead time||High||Less|
|Inventory||Inventory is good||Inventory is WASTE|
|System schedule||Push system scheduled internally||Pull system scheduled by CustomerRequirements|
|Focus||Focus on Value-Add improvement(5%)||Focus on Non-Value-Add WasteElimination (95%)|
|Direct labor cost||High direct labor cost||Direct labor cost is a small percentage of total labor cost|
|Cycle time||Long cycle time||Short cycle time|
|Production||Production for inventory (Just In Case-JIC)||Production on demand (Just In Time-JIT)|
|Inventory level||High inventory levels (Raw, WIP, Finished)||Inventory levels are radically reduced.|
|Production system||Assembly line flow (Each worker performs one function)||Cell production (Each operator performs multiple operations – multi skilled operators)|
|Cleanliness||Messy, cluttered and dirty shop floor||Spotless shop floor with visual management|
|Quality management||Quality management through inspection and rework||management of quality through prevention|
|Changes in production practice||Infrequent changes in production practice||Continuous changes to improve efficiency and productivity|
|Management layer||Many layers of management||Fewer layers of management|
|structure||Not exactly team based structure||Strong team based structure.|
Time consumed in product development (PD) is the biggest issue. Approvals and bulk fabric in-house consumes approximately 75% of the total pre-production activity time and as far the most time-consuming task. Whole supply chain needs a system which
Reduces time spent in PD.
Co-ordinates internally for all pre production activity.
Producing a high quality clear-cut specifications for manufacturing and quality purposes
About 60% of the delays are at pre production stage and remaining at the production stage and reduction of such time can help the company in meeting the delivery dates on time. Controlling the delay would enable the company to reduce the deviation from the schedules lead time and honor the delivery date.
SCOPE OF CRITICAL PATH METHOD
Garment merchandising activities are characterized by people oriented function .
Interdependent activities are synchronized between succeeding and preceding activities to make process network .
Critical chain is the solution the garment industry is looking for as it is based on task dependency. Read the rest of this entry
“One is never over-dressed or under-dressed with a Little Black Dress.” —Karl Lagerfeld
“Before you leave the house, look in the mirror and remove one accessory.” —Coco Chanel
I firmly believe that with the right footwear one can rule the world. —Bette Midler
“I loathe narcissism, but I approve of vanity.” —Diana Vreeland
“A woman’s dress should be a like a barbed-wire fence: serving its purpose without obstructing the view.” —Sophia Loren
“I like my money right where I can see it…hanging in my closet.” —Carrie Bradshaw
“Nothing tastes as good as skinny feels.” —Kate Moss
“I can’t concentrate in flats!” —Victoria Beckham
“I don’t do fashion. I am fashion.” —Coco Chanel
“Walk like you have three men walking behind you.” —Oscar de la Renta
“You can have anything you want in life if you dress for it.” —Edith Head
“Fashion is the armor to survive the reality of everyday life.” —Bill Cunningham
“When in doubt, wear red.” —Bill Blass
“I don’t design clothes. I design dreams.” —Ralph Lauren
“Clothes mean nothing until someone lives in them.” —Marc Jacobs
“Fashions fade, style is eternal.” —Yves Saint Laurent Read the rest of this entry
Surface Modification Modes:
The ability of plasma processing to break down weak covalent bonds in a polymer through bombardment with high-energy particles is known as ablation. This affects the outermost molecular layers of the substrate exposed to the plasma, which boils off and is removed by the vacuum. Because the chemistry of any layers of surface contamination is also generally made up of weak C-H bonds, plasma treatment can remove contaminants such as oil films or injection molding additives, thereby leaving behind a uniformly clean and active polymer surface.
Cross-linking is the setting up of chemical links between the molecular chains of polymers. Plasma processing with inert gases can be used to cross-link polymers and produce a stronger and harder substrate micro surface. Under certain circumstances, cross-linking through plasma treatment can also lend additional wear or chemical resistance to a material.
The replacement of surface polymer groups with chemical groups from the plasma is called activation. During activation, the plasma breaks down weak bonds in the polymer and replaces them with highly reactive carbonyl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups. Activation can also be performed with amino groups or other functional groups. The resulting change in substrate characteristics will be determined by the type of chemical groups incorporated into the surface.
In plasma deposition, a thin polymer coating is formed at the substrate surface through polymerization of the process gas. Depending on the selection of the gas and process parameters, these thin coatings can be deposited with various properties or physical characteristics. Coatings produced in this manner through plasma deposition exhibit different properties than films derived from conventional polymerization, including a high degree of cross-linking and extremely strong adherence to the substrate. Read the rest of this entry
Plasma is defined as an ionized gas containing both charged and neutral species, including free electrons, positive and/or negative ions, atoms, and molecules. The overall state of plasma is considered neutral with the density of electrons and negative ions being equal to the density of the positively charged ions, known as plasma quasi-neutrality. In order to form and sustain plasma, an energy source capable of producing the required degree of ionization must be used. Either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) power supplies may be used to generate the electric field required for plasma generation. For many industrial types of plasma, radio frequency (RF) power supplies are used, usually at a standard frequency of 13.56 MHz. Plasma generation may also be performed at various pressures, including low (vacuum), atmospheric, or high pressure.
Basic Principle of plasma: In elementary physics reference is often made to the three states of matter: Solid, Liquid and Gas. However, there is a fourth state: Plasma.
To convert a solid to a liquid energy is imparted to the solid, usually in the form of heat; similarly to convert a liquid to a gas. It is not therefore surprising that to convert a gas to a plasma, energy also needs to be imparted to the gas. The energy disassociated electrons from the gas atoms through atomic particle collisions. This occurs randomly, which means the energized gas is a mixture of ions, freed electrons, photons and neutral atoms (those yet to lose electrons). If a solid or liquid substance is introduced into the plasma, the high energy gas particles of the plasma will penetrate and collide with atoms or molecules several nano-meters into the solid or liquid, dissociating those electrons and bringing those atoms or molecules to an excited state to be part of the plasma. This means that the high energy particles of the plasma will continuously etch away a several nano-meter layer of a solid or liquid substrate for as long as the material is in contact with the energized gas. Read the rest of this entry