Hook & loop fastening: VELCRO


  • A Swiss inventor made this product & offered the Trade name VELCRO, comes from the French word VELOUR (velvet) & crochet.
  • Consists of 2 nylon tapes, one having a surface of loops & the other having surface of hooks. When pressed together, two tapes adhere & cannot be opened by side way turn easily open by upward turns.
  • This trimming is used instead of buttons or zippers.
  • It is available in the market in roll form. Most common width 5/8” to 3/4”.
  • Used in shoes, belts, money bags, bags, suitcase, sportswear, children, medical textiles etc.
  • Mostly used in the garments of paralyzed persons’.
  • ‘VELCRO’ is also a famous brand for Hook & Loop Fastening.


  • Not suitable for light weight garments, due to high thickness.
  • Efficiency reduces due to dirt, dust & materials deposited in the hook or loops.
  • The possibility of fabric damage.
  • Not comfortable to wear due to less flexibility of tape.



  • Labels are Mandatory in case of international garments trading. Without label no garments can be sold.
  • Trade name, country of origin, size, care instruction etc. are shown mainly on the label.
  • In good quality labels, information’s are woven by narrow loom (Jacquard is most common). The cut ends are folded inward & sewn with plain or zigzag machine.
  • Low price labels are wider & are printed on a fabric made from thermoplastic fibre. The cut edge are heat sealed & supplied in roll form to the RMG industry.

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A button is an object that is used in garments either for the purpose of fastening or for


Fig: Buttons

ornamentation or both. Buttons are usually in the shape of a disc or a knob. Evidence shows that, buttons have been used since as long back as 1500 – 2000 BC. Buttons used in 2600 – 2800  BC have been excavated in the ancient Indus valley, while those used in 1500 – 2000 BC have been found in China as well as in Rome.


Evolution of Button:

13th century ——– Buttons were used as ornament.

16th century ——– Began being attached as a functional fastener.

15th & 16th century ——–Buttons plated with Gold & silver were popular among the noble class.

18th century ———- The trend of enamel buttons set in. Read the rest of this entry

Introduction to Bicomponent Fibers

Introduction to Warp Knitting

Warp knitting:
• In a warp knitted structure, each loop in the horizontal direction is made from a different thread and the number of threads used to produce such a fabric is at least equal to the number of loops in a horizontal row.
• In warp knitting, the thread runs thoroughly in a vertical direction

Weft knitting:
• In a weft knitted structure, a horizontal row of loops can be made by using one thread and thread runs in horizontal direction.

Knitting                Knitting-2 

• Warp guides are thin metal plates drilled with a hollow in their lower end through which a warp end may be threaded if required, they are held together at their upper end in a metal lead and are spaced in it to the cam gauge as the m/c
• The leads in turn are attached to a guide bar so that the guides hang down from it with each one occupying a position at least midway between two adjacent needles in this position. The warp thread cannot be received by the needles and it will merely produce a straight vertical float. Read the rest of this entry

Free Textile E-book: Fundamentals and practices in colouration of textiles


Book Name: Fundamentals and practices in colouration of textiles     
By: J N Chakraborty
Link: Download


Automatic Fabric Spreading Process

Requirements/ Prerequisites of fabric cutting

Cutting of fabric lay by a straight knife cutting machine.

To cut the pieces of garments from fabric lay accurately, following requirements should be fulfilled. Requirements are as following:
1. Precision of cut
2. Clean edge
3. Unfused edge
4. Support of the lay
5. Consistent cutting

1. Precision of cut: Garments cannot be assembled satisfactorily, and they may not fit the body correctly if they have not been cut accurately to the pattern shape. Precision of cut means cutting parts’ shape and size must be as per original sketch. It depends upon some factors-

• The method of cutting employed.
• The marker planning and marker making.
• In manual cutting using a knife, accuracy of cut, given good line definition, depends on appropriate, well maintained cutting knives and on the skill and motivation of the cutter.
• In both die cutting & computer-controlled cutting, the achievement of accuracy comes from the equipment.
• Skill of the operator.

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